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Page history last edited by Mr. Hengsterman 1 year, 9 months ago


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The replacement of the producer by the employee

Most workers no longer were their own bosses. Instead, they were paid for time on the job.  Job and worker/boss relationship becomes more impersonal and detached 


The independent spirit of the average Industrial worker D.I.E.S


Current Events Connection: Modern American Industrial Americans



Decreased independence:
In addition to finding their actual jobs more constricting, workers found that their wages were largely beyond their control and were often unable to find steady work – i.e. they were trapped by the system.   




Increased company control:

In and efforts to increase worker efficiency, employers tried to establish temperance/reform societies and control workers’ social lives. Other employers began paying per item produced rather than by hour.


Taylorism: Frederick Winslow Taylor  was an American mechanical engineer, one of the first management consultants, and is regarded as the father of scientific management.


"I dare say that most of you gentlemen know that a good many pig-iron handlers can never learn to shovel right; the ordinary pig-iron handler is not the type of man well suited to shoveling. He is to stupid; there is too much mental strain, too much knack required of a shoveled for the pig-iron handler to take kindly to shoveling." 


Frederick W. Taylor. Testimony of Frederick W. Taylor at Hearings Before Special Committee of the House of Representatives, January, 1912



Exploitation of women and children

As the need for skilled workers decreased, employers cut costs by hiring women and children for assembly lines. Women also worked in the service sector and in sales/secretarial positions. By 1900, some state laws limited the employment of children, but many companies still got away with it. 


Image result for lewis hine = industry images



Subdivision/specialization and the devaluation of skilled labor:

Workers in mass-production assembly lines found themselves doing the same mundane task over and over again instead of making their own decisions about techniques, starting and stopping times, etc.





The Lasting Machine revolutionized the shoe industry. Instead of taking 15 minutes to last a shoe, a sole could be attached in one minute. The efficiency of the machine resulted in mass production—a single machine could last 700 shoes in a day, compared to 50 by a hand laster—and lower prices.









Image result for Grover Shoe Factory disaster




The Grover Shoe Factory disaster was an industrial explosion, building collapse and fire that killed 58 people and injured 150 when it leveled the R. B. Grover shoe factory in Brockton, Massachusetts on March 20, 1905. Following a boiler explosion, the four-story wooden building collapsed and the ruins burst into flames, incinerating workers trapped in the wreckage.


The Grover disaster brought new attention to industrial safety and led to stringent safety laws and a national code governing the safe operation of steam boilers.











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