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Immigration

Page history last edited by Mr. Hengsterman 3 years, 7 months ago

Immigration and Cultural Conflict in Antebellum America
Pushed from their country of birth by civil unrest, severe unemployment or
inconceivable hardships, this wave of antebellum immigrants affected almost every city in America.

 

 

 

"Nativism in 3D"  -  Distrust, Discrimiation and Destruction 

 

 

 

 

 “For the years 1880 to 1925, analyze both the tensions surrounding the issue of immigration and the United States Governments response to these tensions” 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 


IMMIGRATION TENSIONS,  1880–1925


 

 

 

Immigrants were seen as economic threat and job competitors.  Response to new groups with unfamiliar cultures, languages, and religions. Commonly, ethnic characteristics persisted well after arrival with the aid of community groups, organizations, churches, etc.

 

Resentment over the large numbers of newcomers, despite the high rate of those returning to homelands (overall one-third, but one-half or more among specific groups) and the establishment of immigrant/ethnic enclaves in the United States.

 

 Pseudo-sciences exaggerated links between culture, initial levels of intelligence, “races” (nationalities).  Americans’ fears about immigrant loyalties, ties to homelands, seemingly  low rates of citizenship, and perceived failure of Americanization efforts.

 

There was an association of immigrants with ills of urbanization because most lived and worked in urban areas during this period. Immigrants were also associated with strikes, riots, Red Scare, assassinations, alcohol, and crime.

 

Overseas United States involvement reinforced Americans’ sense of white superiority and the belief that other, non-WASP groups (new immigrants) were nonwhite an inferior—and likely to retain such (inherited) characteristics.

 

 


 


GOVERNMENT RESPONSES TO IMMIGRANT TENSIONS
 

Federalization of controls over immigration and naturalization, including the opening of Ellis Island and then Angel Island, along with the establishment of the Bureaus of Immigration and Naturalization.

 

Ban on Chinese laborers and their spouses; agreement to curtail migration of Japanese laborers (but not, initially, extended to spouses)

 

Defined and extended the categories of individuals not to be admitted because of physical, mental, moral, economic, or political (anarchists) reasons as well as those seeking to enter already possessing labor contracts.

 

Codification of immigration and naturalization laws, tightening rules and requirements, and also expanding rules affecting American-born women marrying non- citizens and Asians, until partially modified in 1922.

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