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The Cold War Begins 1945 to 1952

Page history last edited by Mr. Hengsterman 9 years, 10 months ago

The Cold War Begins 1945-1952

Containment was a foreign policy designed to contain or block Soviet expansion. Containment was the primary U.S. Foreign policy from the announcement of the Truman Doctrine to the fall of the Berlin Wall.                       


Cold War defined: Diplomatic tension between nations with no actual combat. Usually refers to the state of tension between the US and Soviet Union from the late 1940's to late 1980's.

USA vs. USSR Ideological differences:
#1. Communism versus Capitalism
#2 Each economic system calls for the destruction of the other

Cold War Origins


"...Americans on the home front suffered little from the war, compared to the people of the other fighting nations.
By war's end much of the planet was a smoking ruin. But in America the war invigorated the economy
and lifted the country out of a decade-long depression."  – Page 831  



Russians by Sting and Cold War Policy - ChartFuture Unit



United States   Things we did…  Soviet Union   Things they did…  

1. Failure to open up a second front.

2. US ending of lend lease.                                                                                    

3. Dropping of the Atomic Bomb on Japan.

1. Stalin's refusal to allow free elections in Eastern Europe.
2. Violation in Potsdam of his agreement made in Yalta. 
3. Stalin was a cruel and tyrannical dictator who was no better than Hitler




How did Alfred T. Mahan and George F. Kennan influence U.S. foreign policy? 

Mahan and Kennan












Truman Doctrine – 1947 ($400 million in aid) 

In 1947 President Truman asked for and received from the U.S. Congress $400 million to provide assistance “to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation [enslavement] by armed minorities [communists] or by outside pressures.”  Providing military and economic assistance to nations resisting communist takeovers became known as the Truman Doctrine.  The first nations to receive aid under the Truman Doctrine were Greece and Turkey, both of which then successfully defeated attempted communist takeovers.





"The Marshall Plan was a spectacular success. American dollars pumped reviving blood into the 
economic veins of the anemic Western European nations."   American Pageant - Page 871



Marshall Plan -1947 ($17 billion in aid) 

In 1947 U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall created a plan to rebuild a Europe devastated by World War II.  All European nations, including the Soviet Union, could receive U.S. dollars to rebuild their devastated economies as long as the money was spent on products made in the United States.  In 1948 the U.S. Congress approved $17 billion in aid.  Nations receiving Marshall Plan aid were Great Britain, France, Portugal, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, West Germany, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, Greece, and Turkey.


Organization of American States (OAS) - 30 April 1948

Collective security in the Western hemisphere with US participation -- first met in Bogota Colombia with 21 nations present. Point IV - 20 Jan 1949 -- Truman announced in his inaugural address a bold new plan to provide technical and capital assistance to underdeveloped nation





North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) - 1949

Fearful that western European nations could not resist a Soviet attack from eastern Europe, President Truman signed a treaty that created a military alliance (a pact between states in a common cause) known as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).  NATO linked the United States and western Europe in such a way that, as Truman said, “an armed attack against one or more of the [nations] in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all.”  Members of NATO in 1949 were Canada, the United States, Great Britain, France, Iceland, Portugal, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway, Switzerland, and Italy.  Greece and Turkey joined the alliance in 1952, and East Germany was admitted in 1954





Reconstruction Zones?








Berlin Blockade and Airlift – 1948-49

The Berlin Blockade of 1948 left two million West Berliners without electricity, food, and fuel needed for survival.  Unwilling to give up West Berlin to the Soviet Union and unwilling to fight the Soviet army and risk starting World War III, President Truman decided to launch the Berlin Airlift.  For 10 months, starting in August 1948, the United States sent two million tons of supplies to West Berlin on cargo planes.  The planes had to land and take off 24 hours a day to keep from having to give up the West’s occupation zones in the German capital.  The Soviet Union lifted the blockade in May 1949. 





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