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20th Century Covert Operations

Page history last edited by Mr. Hengsterman 8 years, 3 months ago

DRAFT
Covert operations

Covert operations are any sort of mission or operation that is intended to be conducted as to conceal the perpetrators of any such action. In this way covert operations can be distinguished from war declarations or military invasions in that during these the actors makes no attempt in covering up their identities. During the US invasions of Iraq, we wanted everyone to know we were here whereas during the Bay of Pigs invasion, the pilots provided air support to the Cuban exile forces instructed to pretend as mercenaries if ever caught by Cuban forces. Although predated the period one usually associates with covert operations, during the revolutionary war the US employed a network of spies to combat the British. From the Cold War period and beyond United States has most commonly used covert operation in its manipulation of foreign affairs. Espionage, raids, or materiel support are some of the ways the US wields its power. In recent years, the US has executed several eventually high profile covert operations, including
the Iran contra scandal, during which arms were sold to Iran and the profits funneled into Nicaragua.

 

Analyze the president's authority in regards to covert operation in the 20th century.

 

Describe and analyze public reaction to the various clandestine foreign military operations from 1945 to the present.

Positive

  • when raids were successful, they were popular. Often when there is intense popular or emotional support of a certain issue, the Operation Neptune Spear (bin Laden raid), public response has been positive.
  •  


Negative

  • failed raids are bad publicity at times. Examples are Operation Eagle Claw (iran hostage rescue) when it failed
  • bad responses to insursions and bombing of Cambodia, Kent State Protest
  • anti war groups denounce the use of any sort of violence, especially covert military operations
  • clandestine operations and especially espionage has triggered controversies as to 5th amendment rights. The 5th amendment famously includes the protection from seizure of "life, liberty, and property... without due process of the law" clause. The Patriot Act, signed by President George W. Bush in 2001, authorized the use of wiretapping by the CIA to find suspected terrorists. Despite its obvious benefits to society, it can also be seen as an abuse of federal power in its surveillance of the populace.

 

 Analyze the effects of the existence of covert operations of American politics, society, and culture.

 

 

politics

  • has allowed military to wield a lot of influence


society

  • heighten awareness of the prowess of the US military


culture

  • glorified covert/special ops in popular media. ex. James Bond, Carl on Duty: Black Cops, Act of Valor (navy seals movie)

 

 

Analyze the effectiveness of US clandestine operations in containing communism during the Cold War

 

effective

  • Bay of Pigs invasion failed to contain


ineffective effective

  • Bay of Pigs invasion failed to contain


ineffective

 

questions about video:
How did Operation Eagle Claw effect Iran's attitude towards itself and the US?
What are some reasons a complex, highly planned mission like Eagle Claw can fail? 

 

 

Key Terms to Know:

  • Nathaniel Hale - revolutionary war American spy, captured and executed by the British
  • black operations (Black Ops) - covert operations questionably out of legal boundaries
  • Central Intelligence Agency (aka CIA) - founded in 1950 to keep intelligence on
  • National Security Act (1947) - authorized the CIA's use of covert operations.
  • Pentagon Papers - secret Pentagon documents leaked to the press showing how LBJ's administration had lied to Americans during the
  • Gulf of Tonkin resolution (1964) - authorized the President, LBJ, to take for 60 days military action without congressional approaval.
  • Operation Menu - Cambodia - secret raids and bombing into Cambodia and Laos to stop Viet Cong supply runs encured major criticism on the homefront, like the Kent State massacre.
  • Iran Hostage Crisis - a raid to save the hostages was unsuccessful, hurting Carter's reputation
  • Iran Contra Scandal - profits from Iranian arms sales were used to illegally fund contras fighting the communist Sandinistas in Nicaragua.
  • James Bond - fictional British MI6 agent
  • Operation Cyclone (Afghanistan) - funding and weapons were given to Afghan and Jihadist mujahideen fighters in
  • Operation Neptune Spear (Osama bin Laden raid) - president Obama made the final decision to send in members of the Navy Seals to take down the FBI's no. 1
  • Patriot Act (2003) - secret wiretapping is authorized
  • JSOC (Joint Special Operations Command) -the unified central command of special forces from all branches of the US military

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

links and videos

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OMA7Jv1RWIA

, Che Guevara on the Bay of Pigs invasion Key Terms to Know:

  • Nathaniel Hale - revolutionary war American spy, captured and executed by the British
  • black operations (Black Ops) - covert operations questionably out of legal boundaries
  • Central Intelligence Agency (aka CIA) - founded in 1950 to keep intelligence on
  • National Security Act (1947) - authorized the CIA's use of covert operations.
  • Pentagon Papers - secret Pentagon documents leaked to the press showing how LBJ's administration had lied to Americans during the
  • Gulf of Tonkin resolution (1964) - authorized the President, LBJ, to take for 60 days military action without congressional approaval.
  • Operation Menu - Cambodia - secret raids and bombing into Cambodia and Laos to stop Viet Cong supply runs encured major criticism on the homefront, like the Kent State massacre.
  • Iran Hostage Crisis - a raid to save the hostages was unsuccessful, hurting Carter's reputation
  • Iran Contra Scandal - profits from Iranian arms sales were used to illegally fund contras fighting the communist Sandinistas in Nicaragua.
  • James Bond - fictional British MI6 agent
  • Operation Cyclone (Afghanistan) - funding and weapons were given to Afghan and Jihadist mujahideen fighters in
  • Operation Neptune Spear (Osama bin Laden raid) - president Obama made the final decision to send in members of the Navy Seals to take down the FBI's no. 1
  • Patriot Act (2003) - secret wiretapping is authorized
  • JSOC (Joint Special Operations Command) -the unified central command of special forces from all branches of the US military

 

links and videos

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OMA7Jv1RWIA

, Che Guevara on the Bay of Pigs invasion

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